Executive Outcomes: Mercenary Corporation OSINT Guide


When researching EO, it must be understood that Eeben Barlow, its founder, was associated with the Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) which had expertise in setting up front-companies to circumvent sanctions against apartheid era South Africa. With the demise of apartheid, individuals such as Barlow redirected these and other skills for private enterprise purposes. As a result, EO is connected to a weblike structure of multinational holding entities, mining and oil companies, and security and air transportation groups which have purposefully been created to mask its operations, those of its allied firms, and the various individuals involved. This network engages in what could be termed a post-Cold war form of”predatory capitalism” by specializing in the extraction of mineral and oil resources from troubled and failed-states.

The views expressed in FMSO publications and reports are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policy or position of the Department of the Army,
Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.
Executive Outcomes: Mercenary Corporation OSINT Guide

Dr. Robert J. Bunker
and Steven F. Marin
Copyright © July 1999

The open source references contained in this resource guide pertain to the recently defunct South Africa based mercenary corporation Executive Outcomes (EO) which operated as “mining and oil industry shock troops.”1 The references span the 1994 through 1999 period. EO activities, from its founding in 1989 through 1993, escaped the attention of the world media. With EO’s increasing involvement in Angola and later Sierra Leone and Papua New Guinea, this mercenary corporation lost much of its transparency. As a result, its activities became increasingly scrutinized by the press, defense researchers, and other concerned parties.

With the passage of the new anti-mercenary law in South Africa, EO closed its doors 1 January 1999. The “mercenary corporation EO” thus officially existed from 1989 through 1998. As of March 1999, however, the EO Pretoria office was still open, with its associates most likely continuing their activities at a greatly reduced level of visibility under the banner of Lifeguard, Saracen, or another security firm linked to EO.

When researching EO, it must be understood that Eeben Barlow, its founder, was associated with the Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) which had expertise in setting up front-companies to circumvent sanctions against apartheid era South Africa. With the demise of apartheid, individuals such as Barlow redirected these and other skills for private enterprise purposes. As a result, EO is connected to a weblike structure of multinational holding entities, mining and oil companies, and security and air transportation groups which have purposefully been created to mask its operations, those of its allied firms, and the various individuals involved. This network engages in what could be termed a post-Cold war form of “predatory capitalism” by specializing in the extraction of mineral and oil resources from troubled and failed-states.

This resource guide is arranged into three categories with a summary of each category’s scope provided below:

EO Homepage and Documents. Focuses upon the EO homepage which is no longer active. This homepage was active from at least November 1994 through August 1998. The only way to obtain information once contained on the EO homepage is to access digital copies or obtain hard copies of these files.
Traditional Sources. Primarily concerns newspaper, magazine, and journal articles, radio transcripts, and reports. Some links to digital copies of these sources have been provided.
Website and Electronic Sources. Contains numerous South African, British, and Australian on-line publications with their internet addresses. A great deal of source material is also provided from the Center for Defense Information (CDI) website and other electronic media.
I. EO Homepage and Documents

1. “Executive Outcomes: A Brief History,” Subsections; “Introduction,” “Scope,” “The Initial Contracts,” “Working Outside of South Africa,” “Future View.” Executive Outcomes Homepage. N.d.
“Working Outside of South Africa,” subsection digital copy on CDI website.

2. “EO operating philosophy,” Includes “EO Services.” N.d.

3. “UNITA accusations against EO,” EO Press Releases 1994. 7 November 1994.

4. “The Implementation of the Lusaka Protocol,” EO Press Releases 1994. 9 December 1994.

5. “Alleged Illegal Activities by Members of EO,” EO Press Releases 1995. 31 January 1995.

6. “The Role of EO in FAA’s Retaking of Cafunfu Diamond Fields,” EO Press Releases 1995. 17 November 1995.

7. “EO’s Alleged Mission to Assassinate Jonas Savimbi,” EO Press Releases 1995. 29 November 1995.

8. “EO Ends Angolan War,” EO Press Releases 1995. 11 December 1995.

9. “EO’s Withdrawal from Angola,” EO Press Releases 1996. 12 January 1996.

10. “EO’s Alleged Involvement in Natal Midlands,” EO Press Releases 1996. 20 November 1996.

11. “Legislation on Mercenary Activities,” EO Press Releases 1996. 12 December 1996.

12. “EO’s Alleged Involvement in Zaire,” EO Press Releases 1997. 6 January 1997.

13. “Papua New Guinea Contract,” EO Press Releases 1997. 25 February 1997.

14. “Sandline in Papua New Guinea,” EO Press Releases 1997. 25 February 1997.

15. “EO’s Alleged Involvement in Subversive Activities,” EO Press Releases 1997. 11 April 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

16. “Legislation on Mercenary Related Activities,” EO Press Releases 1997. 16 July 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

17. “South African’s Employed in Foreign Countries,” EO Press Releases 1997. 17 July 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

18. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report: Globe & Mail (Canada)- 1 August 1997,” EO Press Releases 1997. 5 August 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

19. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on the Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Bill (B54-97),” EO Press Releases 1997. 21 August 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

20. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report: Reuters World Report: Capetown 20 August 1997,” EO Press Releases 1997. 21 August 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

21. “Comment by Branch Energy on an Article on Executive Outcomes in the September Issue of Jane’s Intelligence Review,” EO Press Releases 1997. 28 August 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

22. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report in ‘Bild Am Sonntag’- 24 August 1997,” EO Press Releases 1997. 1 September 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

23. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report: Saturday Evening Star: 13 September 1997,” EO Press Releases 1997. 15 September 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

24. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report: Business Day: 18 September 1997,” EO Press Releases 1997. 19 September 1997.

25. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report: Daily Telegraph: 23 September 1997: Reporter- Christopher Munnion- Johannesburg,” EO Press Releases 1997. 29 September 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

26. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report: South African Afrikaans Newspaper: Beeld of 10 October 1997,” EO Press Releases 1997. 13 October 1997.

27. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report: Mail & Guardian Vol. 13, No. 48, December 5 to 11- 1997,” EO Press Releases 1997. 22 December 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

28. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report: The Sunday Independent,” EO Press Releases 1998. 12 January 1998.
Digital copy on CDI website.

29. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on an Article ‘Gunning for Business’ that appeared in the Vancouver Sun on 31 January 1998,” EO Press Releases 1998. 14 February 1998.

30. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report: The Times (London) of 10 February 1998,” EO Press Releases 1998. 3 March 1998.

31. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on the Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Bill,” EO Press Releases 1998. 3 March 1998.

32. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Reuters Press Report: 01 March 1998,” EO Press Releases 1998. 3 March 1998.

33. “Individuals Masquerading as Executive Outcomes Employees,” EO Press Releases 1998. 6 March 1998.

34. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on an Article that appeared in New Internationalist March 1998 Edition,” EO Press Releases 1998. 10 March 1998.

35. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Conference ‘Profit and Plunder- the Privisation of War and Security in Africa’ held at the CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa on 5 March 1998 and jointly hosted by the Institute for Security Studies and the Canadian Council for International Peace and Security,” EO Press Releases 1998. 11 March 1998.

36. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Press Report: SAPA: 8 October 1997,” EO Press Releases 1998. N.d.

37. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on Letter Received from Mr. Eeben Barlow Previous Chairman of the Company on a Press Report in Africa Confidential April 1998,” EO Press Releases 1998. N.d.

38. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on an Article ‘Britte help glomet 30t wapens vir coup’ in Afrikaans Newspaper ‘Beeld’ by William Pretorius on 12 May 1998,” EO Press Releases 1998. N.d.

39. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Report in the South African- Pretoria News: 3 August 1998,” EO Press Releases 1998. N.d.

40. “Press release by J.N. van den Bergh, Managing Director of Executive Outcomes (Pty) Ltd,” EO Press Releases 1998. 14 August 1998.

41. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Report in the Mail & Guardian: 28 August 1998,” EO Press Releases 1998. N.d.

42. “Comment by Executive Outcomes on a Posting on the Internet 31 August 1998,” EO Press Releases 1998. N.d.

43. “What is EO,” Grupo El Vikingo Internacional (Strategic Resources Corporation entity)
Site established March 1995. The homepage is no longer active.

44. Executive Outcomes, Ltd. Presentation to the Portfolio Committee on Defence. September 1997.

45. van den Bergh, J.N. “Fax from Executive Outcomes to the Editor of Jane’s Intelligence Review,” N.d.
Digital copy on CDI website.

II. Traditional Sources

46. Adams, Thomas K. “The New Mercenaries and the Privatization of Conflict,” Parameters. Vol. 24., No. 2., Summer 1999, pp. 103-116.

47. “African Air War: South Africans in mercenary conflicts in West Africa, Sierra Leone, and Angola,” Air World International. December 1995, pp. 40-45.

48. Ashworth, Michael. “Africa’s Army for Hire,” World Press Review. Vol. 43., Iss. 12., December 1996, pp. 36-37.

49. Baines, David. “Fugitive banker financing Africa counter-coup,” Vancouver Sun. Saturday 2 August 1997, A9.
Digital copy on CDI website.

50. Ballesteros, Enrique Bernales. “Use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination”. A/49/362. New York: United Nations General Assembly, 6 September 1994, pp. 1-45.

51. Bunce, Matthew. “Sierra Leone faces brush war and scramble for diamonds,” Reuters. 1 March 1998.

52. “Mercenary firms to challenge bill,” Business Day. 18 September 1997.

53. Chatterjee, Pratap. “Mercenary Armies and Mineral Wealth,” Covert Action Quarterly. No. 62., Fall 1997, pp. 27-38.

54. Correy, Stan. “Diamond Mercenaries of Africa,” Radio National Transcripts: Background Briefing. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 4 August 1996, pp. 1-13.

55. Correy, Stan. “We Don’t Do Wars,” Radio National Transcripts: Background Briefing. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Sunday 15 June 1997, pp. 1-10.
Digital copy on CDI website.

56. Correy, Stan. “Robert Friedland– King of the Canadian Juniors,” Radio National Transcripts: Background Briefing. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Sunday 6 April 1997. Digital copy on CDI website.

57. Defense Intelligence Agency. “Summary of 1997 DIO African Symposium (Privatization of Security in Sub-Saharan Africa focus).” Washington, DC: July 1997.

58. Dorney, Sean. “The Sandline affair: politics and mercenaries and the Bougainville Crisis”. Sydney, Australia: ABC Books for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1998.

59. “We’re the good guys these days,” The Economist. Vol. 336., 29 July 1995, p. 32.

60. “Executive Incomers,” The Economist. Vol. 342., 1 March 1997, p. 39-40.

61. Flaherty, USAF. Capt. Mike. “Unclassified paragraphs on Executive Outcomes.” Research Correspondence. May 1996, pp. 1-3.

62. French, Howard W. “Now for Hire: South Africa’s Out-of Work Commandos,” New York Times International, Late New York Edition. 24 May 1995, p. A3.

63. Gordon, Danielle. “No peace for South Africa’s wand’ring warriors,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Vol. 52., May/June 1996, p. 5.

64. Goulet, Yves. “Executive Outcomes: Mixing Business with Bullets,” Jane’s Intelligence Review. Vol. 8., September 1997, p. 429.

65. “Mercenaries to rescue imperialism in Zaire?” The Guardian. 19 February 1997.

66. Harding, Jeremy. “The Mercenary Business,” London Review of Books. 1 August 1996, pp. 3, 6-8.

67. Harding, Jeremy. “The Mercenary Business: ‘Executive Outcomes,’” Review of African Political Economy. No. 71., 1997, pp. 87.

68. Hooper, Jim. “Sierra Leone: The War Continues,” Jane’s Intelligence Review. Vol. 8., January 1996, pp. 41-43.

69. Hooper, Jim. “Peace in Sierra Leone: A Temporary Outcome?,” Jane’s Intelligence Review. Vol. 9., February 1997, pp. 91-94.

70. Hooper, Jim. “Executive Outcomes,” World Air Power Journal. Vol. 28., Spring 1997, pp. 38-49.

71. Howe, Herb. “South Africa’s 9-1-1 Force,” Armed Forces Journal International. Vol. 134., November 1996, pp. 38-39.

72. Howe, Herb. “Self help: Nigerian intervention in Sierra Leone highlights new trends in African Security,” Armed Forces Journal International. Vol. 135., June 1998, p. 64

73. Isenberg, David. Soldiers of Fortune Ltd.: A Profile of Today’s Private Sector Corporate Mercenary Firms. Washington, DC: Center for Defense Information. November 1997, pp. 1-17.

74. Isenberg, David. “The New Mercenaries: Corporate Warriors Market Combat Expertise.” Christian Science Monitor. 13 October 1998.

75. Kiley, Sam, “Nigeria: Nigerian Artillery and Jets bombard Freetown,” The Times (London). 10 February 1998.

76. Lobaido, Anthony C. “Privatized Warfare,” The New American. Vol. 11., 4 September 1995, pp. 21-30.

77. McNeil Jr., Donald G. “Pocketing the Wages of War,” New York Times. 16 February 1997. Digital image on CDI website.

78. Misser, Francois and Anver Versi. “Soldier of Fortune: The Mercenary as Corporate Executive.” African Business. December 1997, pp. 8-14.

79. Moody, Roger. “Diamond dogs of war,” New Internationalist. March 1998.

80. National Society for Human Rights (Nambia). Special report: recruitment, use, financing and training and the involvement of Nambian and South African mercenaries in the Angolan armed conflict: inaccuracies in a report submitted by the United Nations special rapporteur. Windhoek, Republic of Nambia: The Society, 20 October 1994.

81. “The New Mercenaries of Africa,” New York Times. 2 February 1997. Section 4, p. 14. A digital copy exists on the CDI website.

82. Olonisakin, Funmi. “Mercenaries fill the vacuum,” The World Today. Vol. 54., June 1998, pp. 146-147.

83. Pech, Khareen. “South Africa tries to ban mercenaries,” Jane’s Intelligence Review. Vol. 4., 1 February 1997, p. 13.

84. Prabhakara, M.S. “Savimbi wants pro-Govt. mercenaries to go,” The Hindu. 19 October 1995, p. 11.

85. Pugliese, David. “Hire Mercenary Peacekeepers: General,” Ottawa Citizen, 6 April 1998, pp. A1-A2.

86. Rake, Alan. “Dangerous Dogs of War,” New African. November 1995, pp. 12.

87. Rake, Alan. “Branch Energy Bursts into Africa,” New African. June 1997, pp. 32-33.

88. Reno, William. “African weak states and commercial alliances,” African Affairs. Vol. 96., April 1997, pp. 165-185.

89. Reno, William. “Privatizing War in Sierra Leone,” Current History. Vol. 96., May 1997, pp. 227-230.

90. Robinson, Allan, Karen Howlett, and Madelaine Drohan. “Mercenaries eye Sierra Leone,” The Globe and Mail. Friday 1 August 1997. Digital copy on CDI website.

91. Rubin, Elizabeth. “An Army of One’s Own,” Harper’s Magazine. Vol. 294., February 1997, pp. 44-55.

92. Scott, Nolene. “Curbing Mercenaries: South Africa Clamps down on its 9-1-1 Force,” Armed Forces Journal International, January 1998, p. 42.

93. Segal, Gerald. “Why even war is being privatized,” The Evening Standard. 11 May 1998.

94. Shearer, David. “Dial an Army,” The World Today. Vol. 53., August/September 1997, pp. 203-205.

95. Shearer, David. Private Armies and Military Intervention. Adelphi Papers #316. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies. February 1998, pp. 1-88.

96. Shearer, David. “Outsourcing War,” Foreign Policy. No. 112., Fall 1998, pp. 68-81

97. “Executive Outcomes advises employees to apply for amnesty,” South African Press Association (SAPA). Pretoria. January 28, 1997.

98. Turbiville, Jr. Graham and Mark Mills. “Foreign SOF: South African mercenary firm extends influence in Africa,” Special Warfare. Vol. 9, August 1996, p. 52.

99. “Guys With Guns,” U.S. News & World Report. Vol. 122., 16 June 1997, p. 22.

100. Venter, Al J. “Sierra Leone’s mercenary war: battle for the diamond fields.” International Defense Review. November 1995, pp. 65-68.

101. Venter, Al J. “Not Ruf Enough: Merc Army Routs Rebels in Sierra Leone,” Soldier of Fortune. Vol. 20., December 1995, pp. 32-37 and 74-77.

102. Venter, Al J. “Targets of Opportunism: Ex SADF Elite Battle Former Allies,” Soldier of Fortune. Vol. 21., April 1996, pp. 58-61, 82.

103. Venter, Al. J. “Air-Sniping in Sierra Leone,” Soldier of Fortune. Vol. 21., August 1996, pp. 42.

104. Venter, Al. J. “Bloody Triangle,” Soldier of Fortune. Vol. 21., October 1996, pp. 32.

105. Venter Al J. “MarketfForces: how hired guns succeeded where the United Nations Failed,” Jane’s International Defense Review. Vol. 31., March 1998, pp. 23-26.

106. Visser, Amanda. “EO takes legal steps against SABC,” Beeld. 10 October 1997.

107. Whitelaw, Kevin. “Have gun, will prop up regime,” U.S. News & World Report. Vol. 122., 20 January 1997, pp. 46-48.

108. Whitelaw, Kevin. “Mercenaries need not apply,” U.S. News & World Report. Vol. 122., 31 March 1997, p. 47.

109. Wilson, Ben. “South African company confirms PNG Military contract,” Radio Australia. 9:10am AEDT, 26 February 1997.

110. Winslow, Philip. “The Business of War,” Maclean’s. Vol. 108., 6 November 1995, p. 36.

111. Winslow, Philip. “Why Africa’s Armies Open Arms to Elite Fighters from S. Africa,” Christian Science Monitor. 19 November 1995. Digital copy on CDI website.

112. “Sudan: Mercenary Protection,” World Press Review. Vol. 44., January 1997, p. 27.

III. Website and Electronic Sources

113. “Hired help- background: Reining in the dogs of war,” African Express. 12 June 1997.

114. “Hired Help- factfile,” African Express. 12 June 1997.

115. “Verbal clashes over South Africa anti-mercenary law,” Africa News Online. 13 October 1997. Digital copy on CDI website.

116. Alexander, Peter. “South Africa’s veterans recruit army of outlaws,” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 681. 6 April 1997.

117. Amupadhi, Joshua. “Why Angola keeps jailing those South Africans,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 11 October 1996.

118. Amupadhi, Tangeni. “South African rightwinger recruiting for Savimbi,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 7 August 1998.

119. Angolan Ambassador to the United States. “Angolan ambassador commends quartering of police and repatriation of military advisers as key step in peace process.” Washington, DC. 11 January 1996. Angolan Embassy Homepage.

120. “Operation Rausim Kwik: an excerpt from ‘The Sandline affair-Politics and Mercenaries and the Bouganville Crisis,’ a book by Sean Dorety,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 1998.

121. Ballesteros, Enrique Bernales. Report on the question of the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impending the exercise of the rights of peoples to self-determination. E/CN.4/1996/27. Fifty-second session. Item 7 of the provisional agenda. New York: United Nations Economic and Social Council, 17 January 1996.

122. Benson, Marius. “Mercenary ‘leader’ faces gun charges,” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 667. 23 March 1997.

123. Brummer, Stefaans. “MPLA mercenaries will not be executed,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 29 July 1994. Digital copy on CDI website.

124. Brummer, Stefaans. “The forces of Freetown,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 6 June 1997.

125. Brummer, Stefaans. “SA arms ‘stroke’ the Burundi fire,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 5 December 1997. N.s.

126. “Addendum to Soldiers of Fortune, Ltd,” CDI Website. 12 November 1997. Anonymous comments.

127. Chaka, Malik M. “Letter to the Editor,” The Washington Times. 10 March 1997. Digital copy on CDI website.

128. Cohen, Tom. “South African firm carves out role providing military help,” Associated Press (Pretoria). 20 March 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

129. Deen, Thalif. “Disarmament; UN Alarm over increase in Mercenaries,” Intepress Service. 16 March 1997.

130. Dickson, Peter. “Border farmers anxious as EO packs up,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 18 December 1998.

131. Dixon, Norm. “Hypocrisy over PNG’s mercenary plan.” The Green Left Weekly. Iss. 265. N.d.

132. Dixon, Norm. “Mercenaries in Bougainville: Terrorism Inc.” The Green Left Weekly. Iss. 265. 5 March 1997.

133. Dixon, Norm. “Bougainville: Rebels prepare for mercenaries.” The Green Left Weekly. Iss. 266. 12 March 1997.

134. Duffy, Andy. “SA mercenaries working for the UN,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 17 July 1998.
(See also: http://www.mg.co.za/mg/za/archive/98jul/17julam-news.html for another version of this article).

135. “Friedland’s Cronies Loot Africa for Its Mineral Wealth,” Drillbits & Tailings. Project Underground. 7 July 1997. Digital copy on CDI website.

136. “African ministers meet in Pretoria on Great Lakes conflict,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 27 January 1997.

137. “Executive Outcomes in Papua New Guinea,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 25 February 1997.

138. “Executive Outcomes Touting in Middle East,”

Electronic Mail & Guardian. 18 March 1997.

139. “‘SA mercenaries’ in Angola,’” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 3 August 1998.

140. “Labour Court may unravel Executive Outcomes,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 9 April 1999.

141. “Mystery of UNITA’s SA army trucks,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 1 May 1998.

142. “News in brief: PNG frees mercenaries,” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 648. 4 March 1997.

143. Ellis, Stephen. “The secret face of Africa’s masked power,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 9 February 1998.

144. Eveleth, Ann. “Ex-32 Battalion leader takes charge of KwaZulu,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 20 December 1996.

145. Ferreira, Anton. “S. Africa needs to control its dogs of war,” Reuters (South Africa). 20 August 1997. N.s.

146. Ferreira, Anton. “Mercenaries call S. African penalities too harsh,” Reuters (South Africa). 12 September 1997. Digital copy on CDI website.

147. Ferreira, Anton. “South Africa private army fights for a future,” Reuters (South Africa). 13 October 1997. Digital copy on CDI website.

148. Ferreira, Anton. “We make Africa safe for investors, pro soldiers say,” Reuters (South Africa). 16 October 1997. Digital copy on CDI website.

149. Fofana, Lansana. “SA mercenaries leave Sierra Leone– with mixed feelings,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 11 February 1997.

150. Franca, Antonio dos Santos. “A message from ambassador Franca,” O Pensador. Electronic Edition. April/May/June 1996.

151. Franca, Antonio dos Santos. “The Angolan Government Cannot Allow Anyone to Destabilize the Country,” 10 January 1996. Washington Times cite on Angolan Embassy Homepage.

152. Friedland, Robert. “For the record: Response to Tony Wright’s article of 7 April 1997,” Sydney Morning Herald. 21 April 1997.

153. Gordon, Chris. “Mercenaries grab gems,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 9 May 1997.

154. Gordon, Chris. “Mercenary link to Angola mine attack,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 13 November 1998.

155. Haffajee, Ferial and Stuart Hess. “Making a killing in the business world,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 31 July 1998.

156. Harker, John. “Mercenaries: private power, public insecurity?” Life & Peace Institute. April 1998.

157. Henning, Christopher. “PNG’s British forces: We’re just doing a job says Sandline,” The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 February 1997.

158. Henning, Christopher. “Sandline ‘offered help in opening mine,’” The Sydney Morning Herald. Saturday 5 April 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

159. Hiren, Thomas and C. Atenga. “Africa’s donors want crackdown on mercenaries,” Daily Mail & Guardian. 22 December 1998.

160. International Crisis Group. Sierra Leone: A report to the Japanese Government by the ICG. May 1996.

161. Isenberg, David. “Report on mercenaries presented to human rights commission,” UN Information Services. 14 March 1997.

162. Jensen, Holger. “Mercenary army finds a home in the Pacific,” Rocky Mountain News. 9 March 1997.

163. Jensen, Holger. “The world’s hottest mercenary army,” Scripps Howard News Service. 11 March 1997.

164. Johnson, Angelica. “Broker of war and death: Eeben Barlow interview,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 28 February 1997.

165. Jones, Richard, Tom Woodhouse, and Oliver Ramsbotham. “Concern over delays in Angola,” International Peacekeeping News. No. 12., September-October 1995.

166. Kennedy, Bruce, “Soldiers of misfortune: mercenaries play a major role in 20th-century conflicts,” CNN Spotlight COLD WAR series. February 1999.

167. Lemmer, Krisjan. “Life on the Southern Tip (South Africa Foreign Military Assistance Bill- anti-mercenary),” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 2 May 1997.

168. Liebenberg, John. “Treasure-seekers only find trouble,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 20 September 1996.

169. Macko, Steven. “Africa puts out the ‘help wanted’ sign…” Emergency News Net Service Intelligence Report. Vol. 3., 11 January 1997. Subscription Service.

170. “Mining Industry– Angola,” Mbendi Information Services. 29 May 1997. Digital copy on CDI website.

171. Munnion, Christopher. “South Africa blocks export of mercenaries,” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 782. 16 July 1997.

172. Munnion, Christopher. “South Africa tries to stop the trade in guns for hire,” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 672. 28 March 1997.

173. Munnion, Christopher. “Banks may use mercenaries to fight robbers.” The Electronic Telegraph. Issue 976., 26 January 1998.

174. Murdoch, Lindsay and Philip van Niekerk. “Mercenaries who show no mercy,” Asia OnLine: The Age. 25 February 1997.

175. Murdoch, Lindsay. “PNG says it will stick by hired guns,” Asia OnLine: The Age. 26 February 1997.

176. Murdoch, Lindsay. “Angry PNG hits back,” Asia OnLine: The Age. N.d. February 1997.

177. Murdoch, Lindsay. “Mercenaries ask to use Cairns hospital,” Asia OnLine: The Age. 28 February 1997.

178. “Sierra Leone accord blocked over foreign troops,” Nando.net (Reuter Information Services). 25 July 1996.
Digital copy on CDI website. http://www.cdi.org/armstradedatabase/control/small%5Farms/mercenaries/sierra%5Fleone%5Faccord%5Fblocked%5Fover%5Fforeign%5Ftroops.txt

179. Nathan, Laurie. “Lethal Weapons: Why Africa needs alternatives to hired guns.” N.d.

180. Nduru, Moyiga. “Campaign to rid Africa of mercenaries,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 20 June 1997.

181. Northedge, Richard. “Government seeks to buy Bougainville mine,” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 647. 3 March 1997.

182. O’Callaghan, Mary-Louise. “PNG calls in mercenaries.” Publication not specified. 22 February 1997. CDI Website.

183. O’Loughlin, Edward. “SA mercenaries conquer Africa,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 4 August 1995.

184. Omega Foundation. “Information on EO,” CDI Website. 2 September 1997.

185. Palmer, Lucy. “Hiring the rent-a kill brigade a risky strategy for PM,” Sydney Morning Herald. 25 February 1997.

186. Palmer, Lucy and Craig Skehan. “Elite anti-terrorism squad planned in PNG for months,” Sydney Morning Herald. 26 February 1997.

187. Palmer, Lucy. “Australia offered to send ships, inquiry told,” Sydney Morning Herald. Friday 25 April 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

188. Palmer, Lucy and Tony Wright. “How the PNG plot was hatched in a Cairns hotel,” Sydney Morning Herald. Thusday 3 April 1997. Digital copy on CDI website.

189. Parish, Geoff. “The mercenaries: Thwarted veterans of Angola’s jungles,” Sydney Morning Herald. 27 February 1997.

190. Parsons, Belinda. “PNG’s ‘security’ move praised,” Asia OnLine: The Age. 26 February 1997.

191. Pearce, Justin. “CCB man wants his million,” Weekly Mai & Guardian. 24 November 1995.

192. Pech, Khareen and David Beresford. “Africa’s new-look dogs of war,” Weekly Mail & Guardian 24 January 1997.

193. Pech, Khareen and Yusuf Hassan. “Sierra Leone’s Faustian bargain,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 30 May 1997.

194. Pech, Khareen. “Too late for the mercenaries,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 30 May 1997.

195. Pech, Khareen, William Boot, and Ann Eveleth. “South African dogs of war in Congo,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 28 August 1998.
Http:// wn.sn.apc.org/wmail/issues/980828/NEWS8.html

196. Pech, Khareen et al. “SA ‘soldiers sent home,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 10 October 1997.

197. Pons, Sophie. “EO to close on its own terms,” Daily Mail & Guardian. 11 December 1998.

198. “Militarization & Mineral tour: South African Mercenaries,” Project Underground. 27 November 1997.

199. “Militarization & Minerals Tour: Introduction,” Project Underground. 27 November 1997.

200. “Militarization & Mineral Tour: Angola,” Project Underground. 27 November 1997. http://www.moles.org/ProjectUnderground/mil/exec.html

201. “Mercenary activity,” Public Education Center. N.d.

202. “Mercenaries launch 3 mortar bombs…” Republic of Bougainville Press Release. Tuesday 4 March 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

203. “South African firm withdraws Angolan Mercenaries,” Reuters Information Service. 11 December 1995.

204. Rubin, Elizabeth. “Human Rights Initiative, Sierra Leone: The Mercenary Option,” Kennedy School of Government. 23 February 1999.

205. Russell, Alec. “Africa’s soldiers of fortune discover that peace can pay,” The Electronic Telegraph. 26 February 1996.

206. “Sandline Document,” Asia Online: The Age. Document dated 31 January 1997. Agreement between Papua New Guinea and Sandline International.

207. Savill, Richard. “Mercenary boss ‘asked for share in giant mine,’” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 679. 4 April 1997.

208. Savill, Richard. “Spicer tells inquiry of £250,000 missing from office safe,” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 678. 3 April 1997.

209. Savill, Richard. “British mercenaries ‘held by rebels,’” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 665. 21 March 1997.

210. Savill, Richard. “British colonel still held by troops,” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 666. 22 March 1997.

211. Sawyer, Pete. “Executive Outcomes: Background Report,” Pete Sawyer Homepage. N.d.

212. Seneviratne, Kalinga. “SA’s hired guns in the Pacific,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 6 March 1997.

213. Simpson, John. “Simpson on Sunday: World wages war against ‘soldiers of fortune,’” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 667. 23 March 1997.

214. Skehan, Craig and Tony Wright. “Mercenaries chief sought mine deal,” Sydney Morning Herald. Friday 4 April 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

215. Skehan, Craig. “PNG inquiry: Soldiers take their own action,” Sydney Morning Herald. Saturday 5 April 1997.

216. Smith, Michael. “Big Business for officers of fortune,” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 671. 27 March 1997 http://www.telegraph.co.uk:80/et?ac=000378509064265&rtmo=33d62b98&atmo=33d62b98&pg=/et/97/3/27/wpap127.html

217. Soggot, Mungo. “Spy Williamson shows ‘contempt for justice,’” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 7 February 1997.

218. “EO Mercenaries– Nambia,” The Star. 9 October 1997.
Digital copy on CDI website.

219. Stephens, Prd. Mary. Conflict, Inc.: Selling the Art of War. Video transcript. Center for Defense Information. 7 December 1997.

220. Taimbari. Colin. “Govt bid to stop Bougainville ‘secret’ leaks,” Post-Courier (Papua New Guinea). 13 March 1997.

221. Thornycroft, Peta and Eddie Koch. “The soldiers behind the train violence,” Electronic Mail & Guardian. 29 November 1996.

222. Thornycroft, Peta. “Mobutu couldn’t afford SA mercenaries,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 18 July 1997.

223. Thornycroft, Peta “This time Du Toit leaves Angola,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 26 September 1997.

224. “The Great mercenary repatriation hoax,” UNITA home page. N.d.

225. “The rights of peoples to self-determination and its application to peoples under colonial rule or alien domination or foreign occupation,” United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Fifty second session. Item 7 of the provisional agenda. 13 September 1995. Items 64-66; concern report on the question of the use of mercenaries.

226. Warren, Marcus. “Mobutu’s rebel war goes out to tender,” The Electronic Telegraph. Iss. 571., Sunday 15 December 1996.
Digital copy on CDI website.

227. Watts, Max. “Dorney misses the forest and the trees (Review of the Sandline Affair),” The Green Left Weekly. Iss. 388 28 October 1998.

228. “Africans missing in the ‘wild west’,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 19 July 1996.

229. “Leashing the dogs of war,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 24 January 1997.

230. “Investing in the bibles and bullets business,” Weekly Mail & Guardian. 16 September 1994. Digital copy on CDI website.

231. Williamson, Bob. “Misrepresentation of Robert Friedland,” CDI Website. 26 November 1997.

232. Wright, Tony. “Helicopters bought by PNG were close to use-by-date,” Sydney Morning Herald. 1 April 1997.

233. Wright, Tony. “Man with the Midas touch linked to mercenary bosses,” Sydney Morning Herald. 7 April 1997.

234. Zagorin, Adam. “Soldiers for Sale,” Time. Vol. 149., 26 May 1997. http://www.pathfinder.com/@@En6FQUAoB4…/int/ 970526/buisness.soldiers_for_.html

IV. Notes

1. This resource guide was created over a three year period from 1996 through 1999. Special thanks to Elizabeth Ryan and Drew Lewis who served as initial research assistants on this project. Information also provided by Dr. Tom Adams, Capt. Mike Flaherty, USAF, Sgt. John Sullivan, LASD, Roger McFarland, and Holly

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